Tag Archive: Piazza della Signoria


The story of the Medici is truly fascinating. The family of bankers became the rulers of Florence, and through their patronage brought about the Renaissance and  changed the western world forever. It was Cosimo de’Medici who first took control of Florence, commissioning the completion of the great red dome of the Florence Duomo by Brunelleschi. Part 1 of the Medici film concerning Cosimo is found here.

When he suddenly died, his son Lorenzo took charge. He would become known as “Lorenzo the Magnificent”, as he brought about some of the greatest works of art ever through his patronage. It is staggering how many great artists and thinkers came out of Florence at this time, and considering how small Florence is they must have been elbow to elbow with each other. One of the most important Renaissance painters that came about under Lorenzo deMedici was Sandro Botticelli. It was Botticelli who created the first overtly pagan images at a time when the church of the middle ages was still large and in charge, an act that would never have happened had Lorenzo not relaxed the attitude of the city toward ancient “non-church” ideas. This sort of attitude resulted in enormously free creativity in art, as well as in writing and in the sciences. All of it was happening in Florence.

The greatest painting in Florence today is in the Uffizi gallery, once the offices of the Medici palace (the word uffizi means Offices). It’s this painting here by Botticelli from 1486, called “The Birth of Venus”.

 

The painting is a true masterpiece of Renaissance art. In it, the mythical goddess Venus is blown into the shore on a shell and received into the world on land. The story from mythology is far more detailed (and downright gross but you’ll have to research that yourself). The image is a true celebration of beauty, an exercise in pure pleasure on the part of the artist. Botticelli elongates the figures, adding to their grace and movement. Just look at Venus’ neck… super long, yet he makes it work. Until this time, feminine nudes just weren’t very common, except in images of Adam and Eve from the garden. Here’s a great short video that picks the painting apart:

We must remember that the church in the 14 and 1500’s still held enormous sway even in free-thinking places like Florence, and the reception towards such images as “the Birth of Venus” and Donatello’s “David” was still highly controversial. This painting was a private commission from Lorenzo deMedici, as were many other revolutionary works. Public attitude was another matter. Enter the radical Dominican Monk, Girolamo Savonarola.

In 1490, Savonarola came to Florence. He took residence at San Marco (where his monastic cell is still seen today) and began preaching firey sermons about the last days. To a zealous preacher like Savonarola, Florence was filled with evidence of the devil’s work. Free-thinking was everywhere, as were symbols of vast Medici wealth. He saw they entire city going straight to hell, and made sure that everyone heard the message. He claimed to have the gift of prophecy, and foretold that Lorenzo would die soon (as it turns out, he was right). Savonarola must have been a very persuasive preacher, because he soon held the city in his hand. Even Botticelli, the painter or beautiful “pagan” paintings, fell under his spell. The Medici had no choice but to flee the city and Savonarola took charge of Florence in 1494. He set about cleansing the city and returning it to God.

He held an enormous public burning in the Piazza della Signoria that came to be called “the Bonfire of the Vanities”. Florentines came to cast all kinds of evils into the flames, including books and manuscripts, symbols of wealth, jewelry, ancient relics and statues, cosmetics, fine clothing, mirrors, musical instruments and many priceless works of early Renaissance art. Botticelli cast his own paintings into the flames. No one knows how many works were destroyed by the artist himself, but it must have been truly gut-wrenching for him. His work was his life, yet he feared- as many Florentines did- for his eternal soul and had no other choice. Over the next few years,  public opinion turned on Savonarola. The city was used to Medici wealth and all the benefits it brought, something Savonarola wanted no part of. Eventually, things got so bad that the city revolted, and Savonarola himself was burned at the stake in the same spot as the bonfire. The entire episode was a black eye on the city and took years to recover from. The Medici returned, but under very different circumstances.

Please take the time to watch part 2 of the Medici film, called “The Magnificent Medici”. It is a great movie on all that was discussed here, and really brings to life this crazy time in Florence. Enjoy-

 

 

Advertisements

There is a very interesting episode that happened in Florence in 1503. By then, the Renaissance was in full swing and Florence was the place to be. Leonardo Da Vinci was there, a highly respected master then in his 50s. Michelangelo was also there, much younger and gaining fame after recently completing his “David” and “Pieta”. What we must understand is that most of these Florentine artists didn’t care for each other- they were all in competition for the best commissions and  sole title of “greatest artist”. This was a huge benefit to the world of art, because the competition only made the masters push themselves harder. There’s a great article HERE that explores an interesting theory: that Leonardo’s “Mona Lisa” and Michelangelo’s “David”, arguably the 2 greatest works of art in the world (made the same year in Florence), were made in response to such competition and awareness of other artists. It’s an interesting thought- both are total opposites in every way when you think about it.

There was however, an infamous artistic duel that took place between the 2 greatest masters in 1503. Both were commissioned to paint murals of historic battles at the Florence palace, on walls directly across from each other. Today, all that exists are Michelangelo’s drawings of his proposed wall and a copy of Leonardo’s drawing later made by Rubens. Here they are:

Rubens copy of Leonardo Da Vinci's "Battle of Anghiari"

Michelangelo's drawing for the "Battle of Cascina"

The remaining text describing the competition is an article from HolidayCity’s Flash Travel website:

“In a closely-knit community as Florence, the two artists had crossed paths a number of times before, and had developed a strong dislike of each other that would rapidly become legend. There are many anecdotes describing their encounters, the cutting remarks said in each other’s presence, the snide comments tossed off at each other’s backs. They were two lions competing for space in the confines of the city, and all who knew them took note and waited for the outbursts. A few men did more than wait, eager to take advantage of the rivalry. Piero Soderini, the recently elected Gonfaloniere, was one of them.

The Commissioning of the Artists

In 1503, Soderini commissioned both artists to work, side by side, on the walls of the newly built Council Hall, with instructions to create two masterpieces depicting victories the Florentine Republic had achieved over its rivals. Leonardo was to paint the Battle of Anghiari (pictured above), immortalizing the war with Milan; Michelangelo was to paint the Battle of Cascina, commemorating an episode in the war against neighbouring Pisa.

Soderini has good reason for commissioning this work: the competition took place at a time when Florence was experiencing a rebirth of its identity as a Republic, and the spirit of civic pride was strong. Lest anyone think that the commissions were accidental, the contract the Gonfaloniere had drawn up specified the artists were to work ‘in competition with each other’, in order to push them both to produce their best works. The city fathers fully expected their leading artists to produce masterpieces of patriotic grandeur, as well as the entertainment of a public rivalry; unfortunately, they were destined to be disappointed.

Working on the walls

Leonardo progressed further than Michelangelo did; he at least managed to put up the cartoon, or the initial drawings, on the walls of the hall. Unfortunately, Leonardo’s own innovations did him in, as he attempted to use a new painting technique disastrously combining plaster and oils (based apparently on a recipe by roman writer Pliny the Elder). Michelangelo never got past the drawing stage (pictured right), though his tardiness might have been due to the fact that he was commissioned a year after Leonardo.

What the finished works would have been like will never be known, but from the cartoons and studies both artists prepared, the final forms can be guessed — and they would have been magnificent. There was little similarity between the works: the styles of the two masters were as different as night and day. Leonardo was known for the shadowy softness and ambiguity of his work; Michelangelo was rapidly becoming known for imbuing his work with a sense of vibrant energy and dynamism. These sketches were the first representations of war from either artist, and were arresting for the way they captured the emotions of the figures portrayed. Leonardo’s sketches captured the unbearable heat of the battle, in a horrific clash of desperate men and screaming horses; Michelangelo’s drawings showed the bizarre ordinariness and chaos swirling around the edges of the battle, as complacent soldiers were caught by the attacking enemy while bathing in a stream. Contemporary artists were astounded and proclaimed that both works would be masterpieces — when completed.

The Quiet End to the Competition

Unfortunately, despite their many differences, both artists had one devastating trait in common:neither were very good at finishing anything they started. This fact was well known about to da Vinci — he had left too many commissions hanging in the past to be able to escape the assessment. What would only later become evident was the Michelangelo, already a difficult, strong-willed and temperamental man, would also develop the same habit. The unkind might even suggest that he picked up the habit from Leonardo. It is more likely to be due to the unusually high number of commissions he accepted in this period of his life, which made it inevitable that he leave some uncompleted.

Ultimately, however, the halt in the competition was due to changes in political fortunes: In 1504, the Pope called Michelangelo to Rome to begin work on some previously commissioned pieces; Leonardo soon turned his attentions elsewhere; and most irrevocably, in 1512 Soderini was overthrown by a Papal army and the Republic fell. In those circumstances, continuing work on a painting dedicated to the glories of the Republic would have been somewhat imprudent. After 1530, Republicanism was a dead hope in Florence, and when Vasari deliberately painted over the remnants of Leonardo’s Battle of Anghiari, he was removing all traces of the Republic, and its ideals.

So ends one of the greatest ‘What If — ’ episodes of art history. The only remaining traces of what might have been masterpieces from two celebrated artists of the Renaissance are painted-over walls and fragments of copied and uncompleted drawings. The legendary battle between Leonardo and Michelangelo never reached its culmination as the city fathers desired. Its failure is one of the greatest losses to the cultural history of the city; but its ghost still haunts the Council Hall of the Palazzo Vecchio, conjuring up undying visions of the glory that might have been.”

 

Michelangelo’s David

Shortly after finishing the Pieta, the young Michelangelo returned to his hometown of Florence and began work on a commissioned statue  of David. The stone was an enormous piece of white Carerra marble that Michelangelo would turn into one of the world’s great sculptures. It took him 2 years to complete and would become the symbol of Florence. “David” is huge at over 17′ high, and weighs 6 tons. Originally the statue was designed to go on top of a ledge high on the Florence Duomo, the church of Santa Maria del Fiore. For this reason, Michelangelo masterfully altered David with a larger upper body and enormous hands so that when viewed from below looking upward, it would appear perfectly proportional. Still, these adjustments are so perfectly made that you almost would not notice in looking at the statue strait on. When it was done, it was far too heavy (and impressive) to be lifted high up onto the Cathedral, so it was placed in the Piazza Della Signoria in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, the city center. It immediately became a smash hit and a symbol of Florence.

There’s a greater political message behind the statue as well. When Michelangelo returned from Rome, Florence was an uneasy place to be, still reeling from a uprising that sent the ruling Medici family into exile. A radical monk name Savonarola had come to Florence as the Renaissance was in full swing, and he was horrified with what he saw. The strict morals and rules of the middle ages where gone, and humanism was all the rage. Savonarola was a fierce preacher and he began his work of returning Florence to God. He also turned out to be quite convincing, as he gained a lot of followers. Long story short, Florence was thrown into chaos as more and more people rejected the Medici and ideas of humanism before starting a huge bonfire in the Piazza Della Signoria and burning gambling tables, humanistic books/literature, statues, paintings, anything considered pagan. Not long after, the Florentines revolted against Savonarola and burnt him on the same spot and the Medici returned. It was a sad episode that challenged the city to it’s core. David represents a new attitude. He is huge, muscular, confident and obviously quite unashamed. He is a biblical character but also the embodiment of the classical greek idealized nude figure, a strong symbol of humanism and independence. In short, he represented everything Florence wanted to be in a time of turmoil.

Today, a copy stands in the Piazza to take on acid rain and pigeon poo while the original is in the Academia Gallery down the street. We’ll see at least 2 copies of the David in Florence alone, and maybe a few others elsewhere. Last year, a lightweight plaster copy was temporarily placed on top of the cathedral to see Michelangelo’s original intent. Here’s a picture of that:

Much more on Michelangel0, Florence, and Savonarola to come-